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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

 
 
   

Adat

Indigenous tradition or customary law

Al-Ijma

Consensus of opinion of Muslim jurists

Aman

Safety or protection

Amanah

The holding of earth’s resources as a trust.

Ancestral Domain

Landholdings held under claim of ownership, occupied or possessed, by themselves or through the ancestors of the Bangsamoro people or other indigenous people, communally or individually since time immemorial.

Agama

Derived from the Sanskrit word agama meaning acquisition of knowledge. Subsequently, it has come to mean religion or court. Hence, Agama court refers to Muslim religious court.

Source: Rasul, A.G. (Ed.) (1999). Still Chasing the Rainbow. Quezon City: FedPil Publishing.

Alim

Muslim religious scholar (plural: ulama)

Allahu akbar

“Allah is Great”

Asatidz

Plural of ustadz

Bangsamoro

 

Refers to the Muslim inhabitants of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan (MINSUPALA). The term bangsa comes from the Malay word which means “nation” or “people.” Moro comes from the Spanish word Moor, used to refer to the Muslims who ruled Spain and much of the Iberian Peninsula for more than seven centuries (711 to1492).

Source: Muslim, M.A. (1994). The Moro Armed Struggle in the Philippines: The Nonviolent Autonomy Alternative. Marawi City: Mindanao State University.

Name for the “homeland” of the Moro, Bangsamoro represents the people’s struggle for independence.

Source :http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?
title=Bangsamoro; Bangsamoro.com

Bismillah

“In the name of Allah.” Muslims pronounce this phrase before they begin their work.

Datu

Chief or petty ruler

Dayang dayang

Tausug term for princess 

Dhimmi

A people of covenant or protected people, who are non-Muslims living under a Muslim state.

Eid ul-Fitr

Feast of Fast Breaking, a grand celebration that ends Ramadhan.

Faqih

Muslim jurist (plural: fuqaha)

Fardh al-kifaya

Social or collective obligation. If sufficient members of the community performed the obligation, they relieved the rest of the community from that obligation.

Fiqh

Arabic term for jurisprudence; refers to the human understanding or interpretation of Islamic law.

Fugaha

Plural of faqih

Ghazi

One who participates in a military operation

Hadd

Arabic word for certain punishments provided by Islamic law (plural: hudud)

Hadith

Sayings and tradition of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); one of the primary sources of Islamic law.

Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca; the fourth pillar of Islam

Halal

Lawful or permitted things

Haram

Unlawful, prohibited, forbidden and punishable from the point of view of Islam

Hijab

Arabic term for blanket or veil worn by a Muslim female

Hudud

Plural of hadd

Insha Allah

“God is willing”; an expression used by Muslims when they intend to do something in the future

Islam

Derived from the root word salama or slm which means peace; refers to the religion of Muslims all over the world. It is defined as the complete way of life.

Source: Von Denffer, Ahmad. (1983). Ulum al-Qur’ an. Leicester, United Kingdom: Islamic Foundation.

Jawi

Folk Islamic writing that used the Arabic script to convey messages in indigenous Muslim languages. Jawi documents have been found mostly in Tausug but also in Maguindanao.

Jihad

 

Arabic term for “strive” or “struggle” (the holy fighting for Allah’s cause). Al-Jihad may be done in three ways: the Heart (intentions or feeling), the Hand (weapon, etc.), the Tongue (speech, etc., in the cause of Allah). Allah made “fighting” (Jihad) obligatory for Muslims and gave it importance in the holy Qur’an“(2:216).

Source : Abdullah bin Muhammad. (1995). Jihad in the Qur’an and Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Maktab Darus Salam.

Juramentado

Meaning “oath,” the word juramentado was first used by General Malcampo during the final occupation of Jolo in 1876. The practice of running juramentado was a religious rite involving the waging of a jihad, or holy war, upon infidels. Originally, the practice was conducted by a band of men determined to sacrifice their lives in accomplishing the death of enemies, in defense of their religion and community.
Muslims refer to it as jihad fi sabilillah (“fighting for Allah’s cause”).

Source: Hurley, Vic. (1936). Swish of the Kris: the Story of the Moros. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
 
Philippine Muslims refer to this act as sabil or prang sabil, from the Arabic jihad fi sabilillah.

Source: http://www.muslimedia.com/ARCHIVES/sea99/phil-jihad.htm, Four centuries of jihad underpinning the Bangsamoro Muslims’ struggle for freedom, 1999, by Robert Maulana Alonto.

Lumad

Non-Muslim indigenous peoples in Mindanao

Luwaran

Customary law of the Maguindanao

Madrasah or Madrasa

Islamic religious school (plural: madaris)

Maratabat

Maranao term for “pride” or “honor” 

Masuwara

Principle of consultation that is an inherent part of decision-making in Islam

Moro

Used interchangeably with “Muslim” to refer to ethno-linguistic groups indigenous in Mindanao. However, while “Muslim” refers to a universal religious identity, the term Moro denotes a political identity distinct from the Islamized peoples of Mindanao and Sulu. Moro was originally used in a derogatory way by the Spanish colonizers to refer to the peoples of Mindanao who had the same religion as the Moors who had once colonized Spain.

Source: Mindanao: Land of Promise, Accord (cited in “Interfaith Dialogue and Peacebuilding in Mindanao,” a report by the Philippine Council for Islam and Democracy).

Moro Islamic Liberation Front

Group that broke away from the Moro National Liberation Front in 1984, demanding the establishment of an independent Islamic state. The split was due to differences in political strategy (peace negotiations vs. armed struggle), objectives (autonomy vs. independence), ideological orientation (secular-nationalist vs. Islamic revivalist), leadership style (centralized vs. consultative), and ethnic allegiances (Tausug vs. Maguindanao).

Source: Human Development Network. (2005). Philippine Human Development Report 2005.

Moro National Liberation Front

Founded by Nur Misuari, the MNLF waged the secessionist struggle in the 1970s and early 1980s, for the establishment of a Bangsamoro Republic. The armed struggle abated after the signing of the Tripoli Agreement in 1977. The subsequent establishment of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and a peace process came about, leading to the signing of the peace agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the MNLF in September 1996.

Sources: Autonomy and Peace Review (2006); Bacani, B.R. (2004). Beyond Paper Autonomy (2004); Human Development Network. (2005). Philippine Human Development Report 2005

Mufti

Jurisconsult. A jurist well-versed in the Qur’an, Hadith and the great works on jurisprudence in Islam. Historically, muftis are appointed by sultans and or political authorities.

Source: Majul, C.A. (1980). Islam and Development: A Collection of Essays. Metro Manila: Office of the Commissioner for Islamic Affairs.

Mujahideen

Those who fight for Allah’s cause 

Muslim

Believer of Islam who believes in the oneness of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as His last messenger.

Pagtiya-on

Tausug term for “marriage”

Qiyas

Analogical deduction; one of the sources of Islamic law

Qur’an

Sacred book of Muslims or followers of Islam, and believed to be the speech and communication of Allah to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) through the angel Jibreel (AS).

Ramadhan or Ramadan

Ninth month in the Muslim calendar; month of blessing devoted to prayer, fasting and charity.

Rinte

Maranao term for “armlet”  or “bracelet “

Salsila

See tarsila

Sawm

Fasting; one of the five pillars of Islam

Shahid

Arabic term for “martyr” or “witness”

Shari’ah or Shari’a

Arabic term for Islamic law, which is defined as the totality of Allah’s commandment. Literally “road to a watering place,” it is also taken to mean “clear path to be followed.”

Source: Arabani, B I. (1997). Commentaries on the Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines. Manila, Rex Book Store.

Sufi / Sufism

(Pronounced as “Soofeeism.”) Also known as tasawwuf, Sufism is Islamic mysticism. There are various views about how the Sufi got their name. According to one view they were sitters in the shrine (ashabisafa), another is that they were an Arab tribe of Suffa. Other views are: they are so called because they wore woolen garments (soof or “wool”); or because they believe they will stand in the first “row” (another meaning of soof) on the Day of Judgment. Another explanation is that the word comes from the Greek sophia (“wisdom”), and therefore they are sophists. The most likely origin, however, seems to be from safa (“pure”) implying that their hearts are pure.

Source: Bahadur, K. P. (1999). Sufi Mysticism. New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications.        

Sultan

Head of state or community

Tawheed

Oneness of Allah (Islamic monotheism)

Taraweeh

Nightly congregational prayer performed by Muslims during the sacred month of Ramadhan

Tarsila

Genealogy. Also called salsila

Tripoli Agreement

Signed by the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) on December 23, 1976. It provided for the establishment of autonomy for the Muslims in southern Philippines within Philippine sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Tuan

Title of respect. Presently used locally for religious leaders.

Torogan

“House”; traditional home of the Maranao

Ulama

Plural of alim

Ummah

Universal community of believers in Islam regardless of race, color, gender, age, and status in life.

Uqubat

Punishment in Islamic law relating to theft, adultery, false witness, slander, etc.

Ustadz

Arabic term for “professor” or “teacher”

Waasiyah

Arabic term for “will” or “testament”

Zakat

Arabic term for “alms giving” and is to be taken from the wealth of a believer using certain measures; one of the five pillars of Islam.

 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
  Copyright 2011 Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication