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MORO HEROES FROM MINDANAO
 
     
 

DATU ACHE

 
 
  • He helped unite the leaders of Sulu.
  • He unjustly suffered imprisonment in Manila after joining a diplomatic mission there.
  • He successfully planned and led Muslim attacks on the Spanish shipyards in Camarines and Bagutao.
 
 

SULTAN JAMALU’L ALAM

 
 
  • He defended Jolo against the Spanish invasion of 1876.
  • He transferred his capital to Maimbung, and from there continued the war using the juramentados, Muslims who take an oath to kill non-Muslims.  Their attacks forced the Spaniards to leave.
  • He signed a treaty of peace with Spain in 1878.
  • Date of Death:  1880
 
 

DATU ALAMADA

 
 
  • He continued Datu Ali’s resistance to American rule in Cotabato after Ali’s death in 1906.
  • With 300 men, he led attacks on American colonial forces in Buldon and Upper Cotabato, and commanded the loyal support of thousands of Muslims.
  • His influence was so strong that the Americans thought of hiring assassins to destroy him.  He refused to surrender to the Americans, preferring to surrender to a Filipino official in 1913.
 
 

DATU ALI

 
 
  • Known as Rajah Buayan, he was the ruler of the Upper Valley of Cotabato and was the acknowledged leader of the Maguindanaos in the 1900s.
  • He led the revolt against the American government from 1903 to 1906, first fighting the enemy in open battle, and then using guerilla warfare.
  • His brother Djimbagan was captured at Fort Serenaya and then used as hostage to force him to surrender, but he did not yield.  He continued to fight until October, when in the Battle of Simpetan, he and most of his men were killed.  In another battle later that month, three of his sons were also killed.
  • Date of Death: October 22, 1906
 
 

SULTAN ALIMUDIN I or AZIM-UB DIN

 
 
  • He was one of the first Muslim leaders to forge friendly relations with Spain by signing a peace treaty in 1737.
  • He revised the Sulu Code of Laws and prepared the Arabic-Sulu vocabularies for all Muslim priests.
  • During his unjust imprisonment in Manila in 1751, he facilitated, through his daughter Fatima, the release of 50 Christians in Jolo.
 
 

DATU AMPUANAGUS

 
 
  • He led a battle against the American colonial government in 1903, when his fort at Taraca in Lanao was assaulted and captured by American forces.  Two hundred of his men were killed.  He surrendered along with six other datus and 22 warriors.
  • He resumed the war in 1906 by ambushing an American force sent from Camp Keithley to destroy him.  Later, a bigger battle in Didanganin greatly diminished his forces.
  • In 1908, he and his men attacked American forces in Dansalan with only 20 rifles.
  • He later surrendered after the negotiations between Muslim leaders and the American government, marking the end of Muslim resistance to American rule.  It was only in 1935 that hostilities between the two resumed.
 
 

MAHARAJAH ANDUNG

 
 
  • He led an attack on Camp Rumbough, an American detachment, in 1903.
  • He built forts in many places, including in Tumpak, Kaunayan, Sangai-Tunggal, Kamasarin, and Sinumaan.
  • The Americans attacked his fort at Sinumaan.  The trenches he built around the fort did not stop the enemy from advancing.  He and 74 other warriors were killed in battle.
  • Date of Death: 1903 (?)
 
 

HADJI BUTU ABDUL BAQUI

 
 
  • At 16, he served as prime minister of the Sultanate of Sulu.
  • A master of the Koran and Arabic, he made use of his learning by continuously working for peace among the Sulu leaders and between the latter and the Spanish and American colonizers.
  • Time and again, he was able to prevent bloodshed by pacifying his people, especially during the early American rule.
  • Date of Birth  :  1865
  • Place of Birth:  Jolo
  • Date of Death: Feburary 22, 1938
 
 

SULTAN BANTILAN or SULTAN MUIZ-UD-DIN

 
 
  • This younger brother of Alimudin led a raid against government settlements in the Visayas in the 1750s.
  • Despite a rivalry with his brother over the Jolo sultanate, he brought about his brother’s release from prison in Manila by writing a petition to the Spanish governor-general to review his case, and reciprocated the latter’s peace efforts.
 
 

SULTAN PANGIRAN BUDDIMAN or MUHAMAD UL-HALIM

 
 
  • He defended Jolo against the Spaniards in 1578, but lost the battle.  He was forced to pay pearls in tribute.  He vowed to continue resisting Spanish rule in Jolo.
 
 

KAPITAN LAUT BUISAN

 
 
  • He became chief of Maguindanao after the reign of his brother, Datu Salikula.
  • He defended, but lost, his land in the Battle of Buayan in 1597.
  • He joined Raja Sirungan, the Raja Mura, in conducting raids against the Spanish settlements in Cuyo and Calamianes in 1602, using 100 boats and 100 men from each of the Maguindanao villages.
  • Date of Death: 1619
 
 

DATU DIMASANKAY

 
 
  • As ruler of Maguindanao in 1579, he led in defending their land against the Spanish invaders.  The Maguindanaos won the battle.
 
 

PANGLIMA HASSAN

 
 
  • As chief of Look, he led some 4,000 Moro warriors in the attack on the American fort at Jolo in 1903.
  • He was captured while defending his camp at Lake Seit in November 1903, but he soon escaped.
  • He resumed the war in February 1904 when, together with Datus Laksamana and Usap, he attacked the pro-American Sultan Kiram and his forces in the battle of Pampang.  He lost in the battle, and was later killed with his two companions along the crater of Bud Bagsak.
  • Date of Death: March 1904
 
 

JIKIRI

 
 
  • A Samal (called Sama by fellow Muslims), he led a group of Moro warriors in an attack against the American Constabulary.  His rebellion was a protest against the abolition of native leaders.  Later, he captured the Borneans who had been tasked to pursue him.
  • He took a last stand, together with his warriors, and their women and children, against the American troops in a cave on Patian island near Jolo.  He and his companions were all killed.
  • Place of Birth:  Islet of Para, off Jolo
  • Date of Death: July 4, 1909
 
 

SULTAN KUDARAT

 
 
  • He united the Muslim clans in Cotabato, Lanao, and Basilan, and ruled for 50 years.
  • He led many raids and battles against Spain from 1634 up to 1637.  In 1637, he was defeated, but was able to escape despite a bullet wound.  Thus, he was again able to lead his clan in battle from 1655 to 1668.
  • He inspired the Maranaos to oppose the building of a Spanish fort near Lake Lanao, thus saving Mindanao for Islam.
  • Before his death, he instructed his followers to forge a peace treaty with Spain.
  • Date of Birth  :  1581
  • Place of Birth:  Maguindanao
  • Date of Death: 1671
 
 

DATU MALINUG or TAHIR-UD-DIN

 
 
  • He led the defenders of Maguindanao against Spanish attacks in 1734.  The first attack occurred at dawn, and the second lasted for three hours.  The Muslims won.
  • Date of Death: 1748
 
 

MARTYRS OF THE BATTLE OF BUD BAGSAK

 
 
  • Bud Bagsak is a mountain in Northern Jolo.  There, hundreds of 500 Moro men, women, and children gathered and built a stone fort during the first months of 1913.
  • On June 11, the American military attacked.  The Muslims led by their Nakil Amil bravely defended their fort, first with guns and bullets and then with knives and bolos.  But, after four days, Bud Bagsak, along with every warrior, woman, and child, fell.
  • Date of the Martyrs’ Death: June 15, 1913
 
 

MARTYRS OF THE BATTLE OF BUD DAJO

 
 
  • When the American military went to Jolo, a large group of Tausug families immediately defied their rule by refusing to pay taxes.  The Tausugs decided to resist American rule and live on Mt. Dajo, an extinct volcano.
  • The Americans, under Governor Leonard Wood, decided to attack their settlement.  The battle lasted for three days in early 1906.  At the end of the battle, more than 600 men, women, and children were killed.
  • Date of the Martyrs’ Death: March 7, 1906
 
 

DATU AMAI PAKPAK or DATU AKADIR

 
 
  • In 1924, he led a movement against the government.  He believed that the spirit of Saruang, a dead leader, and those of others killed earlier by government troops, had come back to avenge their death.  The movement spread to many villages in Lanao, but was shattered by Pandak’s own death.
 
 

PANGINAN SARIKULA

 
 
  • Son of Rajah Bungsu
  • He joined in conducting the earliest Muslim raids against the Spaniards in retaliation to Spanish attempts to colonize Mindanao in July 1599.
  • He retaliated against Spanish expeditions by launching a series of raids against Luzon and Visayas in 1645-1648.  These raids halted Spanish advance into Mindanao for the next 50 years.
  • Date of Death: 1648
 
 

SIRONGAN or  SILONGAN

 
 
  • Rajah of Buayan
  • He led the Buayanes against the Spaniards in the Battle of Buayan in Cotabato in 1596.
  • Together with his brother Datu Ubal, he successfully pushed back the enemy into the coast of the Rio Grande, thus thwarting the first Spanish attempt to colonize Buayan.
  • He killed Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa who lead the first Spanish expedition to Cotabato.
  • In 1599, he joined forces with Datu Sali of Maguindanao in attacking the Spanish colonies in the Visayas.
 
 

DATU TAGAL

 
 
  • This brother of Sultan Kudarat led for eight months a fleet of seven ships in attacking the Spanish-held areas in the Visayas.
  • On his way home to Mindanao, his forces were pursued and engaged in battle by the Spaniards.  He, a younger brother, and 300 other warriors were killed in combat.
  • Date of Death: December 21, 1936
 
 

DATU TUNGUL

 
 
  • In June 1902, he led an attack on American forces near Camp Vicars to manifest Muslim resistance to American presence in Lanao.   He later ran amuck and was killed.
  • Date of Death: 1903
 
 

DATU UBAL

 
 
  • In the Battle for Buayan in 1596, this brother of Raja Sirungan killed the leader of the Spanish invaders of Sulu.  Thus, he preserved the freedom of the Kingdom of Buaya.
 
 

DATU USAP

 
 
  • Inspired by a pandita from Mecca, he led a revolt against the Americans in the Luuk district in Sulu.  He was killed in combat.
  • Date of Death: 1905
 
 

DATU UTU or UTO

 
 
  • He fought the Spaniards in many battles to defend his capital Bakat several times, but he lost it eventually in 1886.
  • He signed a peace treaty with the Spaniards in 1887.
  • Date of Birth  :  1860
  • Place of Birth:  Biayan, Maguindanao
  • Date of Death: 1888
 
 

SULTAN MUWALLIL WASIT BUNGSU

 
 
  • He led 2,000 warriors in raiding the Spanish shipyards in Camarines in 1627.
  • He defended Jolo against Spanish attack in 1638.  However, sickness within the fort forced him and the other datus to surrender after three months of fighting.  He escaped soon after.  He was one of the greatest leaders of Sulu.  Under him, the Sultanate of Sulu reached its peak.
 
     
 

Source: Ang Mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan : A Centennial Resource Book. 1998. Published by The Philippine Centennial Commission in cooperation with the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication.

 
     
 
 
 
 
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